Izinto eziphembelela ukukhawuleza kwedayi ukuya elangeni kunye neendlela zokuphucula

Ukukhawuleza kwelanga kubhekisa kubunono bedayi ukugcina umbala wayo wokuqala phantsi kwelanga. Njengommiselo oqhelekileyo, ukumiselwa kokungxama ngokukhawuleza ekukhanyiseni kwelanga kwi-etheric yimigangatho.I-elebhu, imithombo yokukhanya okufakwayo isetyenziselwa ulawulo olulula, kwaye ilawulwe xa kunesidingo. Owona mthombo wokukhanya uqhelekileyo uqhelekile kukukhanya kwe-hernia, kodwa kunye namalahle e-arc. Ngaphantsi kwesikhanyiso sokukhanya, idayi ifumana amandla okukhanya, inqanaba lamandla liyenyuka, iimolekyuli zikwimo yokuqalisa ukusebenza, kunye nenkqubo yemibala yeemolekyulu zedayi zitshintsha okanye zitshatyalalisiwe, nto leyo ebangela ukubola kwembonakalo kunye nokudakumba okanye ukudumba.

 

1. Impembelelo yokukhanya kwidayi

Xa imolekyulu yedayi ifumana amandla efoton, ibangela ielektroli zangaphandle ze-mocule zitshintshe zisuke kumhlaba ongaphantsi ziye kwisimo esinemincili.

Ngokwendlela eyahlukeneyo, iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokuqiniswa zinokwenzeka kwiimolekyuli zedayi, kubandakanya π → π *, n .. ilizwe lokuqala elinemincili kunye nelizwe eliphantsi. Imeko ye-singlet ibhalwe njenge-S0, kwaye eyokuqala neyesibini imincili yabhalwa njenge-S1 kunye S2, ngokwahlukeneyo. Imimandla ye trilinear ehambelanayo imelwe yi-T0, T1, kunye T2.

Kwinkqubo yokuvula, iimolekyuli zedayi zenziwa zasebenza kumanqanaba ahluka-hlukeneyo amandla e-elektroni, amanqanaba amandla alo okunyibilikisa aya kuncitshiswa ngokukhawuleza, amandla aya kuguqulwa abe bubushushu kunye nokuchithakala, le nkqubo yokuncitshiswa kwamandla ibizwa ngokuba kukudlula kokudlanga. Kwinkqubo yokudlula kokudlidliza, ilizwe eli-S2 elinemincili elinomgangatho ophantsi wamandla ombane liya kuguqulwa libe yimeko enovuyo lwe-S1 enomgangatho ophakamileyo we-vibration, kwaye ukudluliselwa kokuhamba kuya kuqhubeka kusenzeka. Ngale ndlela, i-S2 state yovuyo esuka kwinqanaba eliphezulu lamandla iguqulwa ngokukhawuleza ibe yimeko ye-S1 yovuyo ukusuka kwinqanaba eliphantsi lamandla ombane. Inguqu phakathi kwe-S2 kunye ne-S1 yamandla e-elektroni phantsi kweemeko zokunxibelelana ngokulinganayo kwamandla akubandakanyi utshintsho lwophindaphindo lwe-elektroni, ebizwa ngokuba yinguqu yangaphakathi. Kukho notshintsho phakathi kwe-singlet kunye ne-triplet, ukusuka kwi-S1 ukuya kwi-T1 evuya. Utshintsho lwe-elektroni yombane phantsi kwemeko yokuhamba kwamandla ngokulinganayo ibizwa ngokuba yindlela ye-intersystem channeling. Ngenxa yokuba "kungavunyelwa" umthetho wokukhethwa kwe-elektroni, umda we-crossover ye-intersystem ngokubanzi usezantsi.

Ukuphendula kwefotokopi phakathi kweimolekyuli zedyi eziguqulweyo kunye nezinye iimolekyuli kukhokelela ekuphelisweni kokukhanya kwodayi kunye nokulahleka kokuqhawuka kwempuku.

2. Izinto ezichaphazela ukukhawuleza kokukhanya kweedayi;

 a. I-Wavelength yomthombo wokukhanya kunye nokukhanya kweeradiya

 b. Izinto ezingqongileyo;

 c. Iipropathi zeekhemikhali kunye nolwakhiwo lwesebe;

 d. Ukubopha amandla edayi kunye nefayibha;

 e. Ubume bemichiza yedayi;

 f. Ukugxininiswa kwedayi kunye nemeko yokudibanisa

 g. Impembelelo yesithukuthuku sokufakelwa kwilungu lokufota;

 h. Impembelelo yeendibano.

Ngaphantsi kwempembelelo yedayi edada ibala, imfumba emva kokudaya ayicacanga, kwaye amadayi angafakwanga kunye nedayi ye-hydrolytic asele eludongeni iyakuchaphazela nokukhanya okukhawulezayo kwamadayi, ngokucacileyo lawo asezantsi kunalawo edayi esebenzayo. Okukhona kucocwa ngokucokisekileyo, kokukhona kubhetele ukukhanya.

Ii-cationic ezisezantsi ze-molekyuli okanye i-polyamine condension resins kunye ne-cationic softeners zisetyenziswa ekugqibeni kwelaphu, ngokuqinisekileyo okuya kunciphisa ukukhawuleza kwilanga.Ngoku, kufuneka siqwalasele iziphumo zokulungisa iiarhente kunye nokuthambisa ekuhambeni ngokukhawuleza kwelanga.

Iindlela zokuphucula ukuKhanya ngokukhawuleza kwelanga

a. Phucula imeko yedayi ukunciphisa ifuthe kwinkqubo yombala weedayi ngelixa usebenzisa amandla ukukhanya, ukuze kugcinwe umbala wokuqala; Oku kudla ngokubizwa ngokuba kukuzila okuphezulu kwidayi yelanga. Ixabiso lolu hlobo lwe-dyestuff liphezulu ngokubanzi kunelo le-dyestuff eqhelekileyo.

b. Ukuba ilaphu litshisiwe, kodwa ukukhanya kwelanga akuphumeleli kwiimfuno zecala, kungaphuculwa ngezifakelo. Ngexesha lenkqubo yokudaya okanye emva kokudaya, kufakelwa izongezo ezifanelekileyo, ukuze intsingiselo yokukhanya yenzeke ngaphambi kwedayi xa ivezelwe ukukhanya, kunye nokukhanya kwamandla kuyachithwa, ukukhusela iimolekyuli zedayi. Ngokubanzi i-UV engcamlayo kunye ne-anti-UV yearhente, ngokudibeneyo yokuphucula ukukhanya kwelanga.


Ixesha lokuposa: Jul-24-2020